Background of Tanzania
Tanzania is a fascinating travel destination that has been blessed with real beauty and it offers something for everyone. The famous Mt Kilimanjaro, with its 5895 metre altitude is the highest mountain in Africa. The Serengeti National Park with its seemingly endless plains is one of the best wildlife resorts in the world and then there is the Ngorongoro Crater with its unbelievable density of animals.
The country also offers an amazing adventure accompanied with beautiful scenic view of trekking tours and relaxing beach stays on the shores of the Indian Ocean on either Tanzania’s mainland or on one of the beautiful islands of Zanzibar, Mafia or Pemba.
The East African nation of Tanzania has become an increasingly popular destination for visitors from around the globe due to the greatest sights in this vast, fascinating, beautiful and intriguing nation. Tanzania boasts some of the greatest parks in Africa with incredible sights of the Serengeti, Tarangire, Ngorongoro, Manyara, Ruaha and Selous. You get to have memorable encounters with the ‘Big 5’ safari animals but also meet host of wildlife that includes incredible and striking bird species.
Discover the origin of humanity in places like the Ngorongoro Conservation Area you have the chance to visit remarkable archaeological sites. Tanzania is an attractive circle of cultures resulting from generations of migrations, occupations and trading exchanges. This fusion has resulted in a rich and distinctive culture you can experience in the food, music, language and customs of the country. Tanzania has areas of outstanding natural beauty ranging from beaches to dense forests.
The East African nation of Tanzania dates formally from 1964, when it was formed out of the union of the much larger mainland territory of Tanganyika and the coastal archipelago of Zanzibar. The former was a colony and part of German East Africa from the 1880s to 1919, when, under the League of Nations, it became a British mandate until independence in 1961.
It served as a military outpost during World War II, providing financial help, munitions, and soldiers. Zanzibar was settled as a trading hub, subsequently controlled by the Portuguese, the Sultanate of Oman, and then as a British protectorate by the end of the nineteenth century. Julius Nyerere, independence leader and "baba wa taifa for Tanganyika" (father of the Tanganyika nation), ruled the country for decades, assisted by Abeid Amaan Karume, the Zanzibar Father of Nation. Following Nyerere's retirement in 1985, various political and economic reforms began.
In 1954, Julius Nyerere, a school teacher who was then one of only two Tanganyikans educated to university level, organized a political party—the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). On December 9, 1961, Tanganika became an autonomous Commonwealth realm, and Nyerere became Prime Minister, under a new constitution. On December 9, 1962, a republican constitution was implemented with Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere as Tanganyika's first president.
Zanzibar received its independence from the United Kingdom on December 10, 1963, as a constitutional monarchy under the Sultan. On January 12, 1964, the African majority revolted against the sultan and a new government was formed with the ASP leader, Abeid Karume, as President of Zanzibar and Chairman of the Revolutionary Council.
In the first few days, between 5,000 and 15,000 Arabs and Asians were murdered, women were raped and their homes burned. Within a few weeks, a fifth of the population had died or fled.
It was at this time that the Tanganyika army revolted and Britain was asked by Julius Nyerere to send in troops. Royal Marines Commandos were sent by air from England via Nairobi and 40 Commando came ashore from the aircraft carrier HMS Bulwark. Several months were spent with Commandos touring the country disarming military outposts. When the successful operation ended, the Royal Marines left to be replaced by Canadian troops.
On April 26, 1964, Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The country was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania on October 29 of that year. The name Tanzania is a blend of Tanganyika and Zanzibar and previously had no significance. Under the terms of this union, the Zanzibar Government retains considerable local autonomy. Tanzania is a country in East Africa partly colonized by the German and the British.